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Effects of Natural Disasters such as Earthquakes on Society
Effects of Natural Disasters such as Earthquakes on Society
It is known that one of the biggest disasters is an earthquake. Every year, many earthquakes with more or less severity occur in our country and around the world. It is a fact that there will be many earthquakes in our country and around the world in the past, as well as many earthquakes now and in the future. People are affected not only physically and economically but also psychologically as a result of these events. Location-based natural disasters are natural events that can be seen almost everywhere in the world and can become disasters. At the moment of disaster, the person goes into psychological shock and almost freezes. The shock effect spreads to the whole body of the person. This shock effect is the body's psychological defense mechanism. In some individuals, the opposite of this behavior is observed. The person moves in a state of panic and without stopping. Incidents such as natural disasters, deaths, accidents, earthquakes, tsunamis, etc. are called traumatic situations.
Natural disasters consist of events that shake our sense of belief that the world is a safe place by causing physical, social and psychological losses that greatly disrupt life. Being affected by psychological losses is a concept that varies from person to person.
The first psychological behaviors experienced after a disaster are called acute situations:
1. In the first stage, with the shock of the event in humans; Feelings such as decreased ability to think logically, disbelief, fear, anger attacks, and insecurity emerge. Behaviorally; Problems such as increased alcohol and cigarette use, insomnia or excessive sleep, nightmares, eating too little or excessively, and attention deficit occur.
2. The second stage is the reaction stage. At this stage, people who experience disasters want to avoid any situation that reminds them of a disaster. Emotions such as fear, anxiety, restlessness, depression, and loneliness are observed.
3. In the recovery phase, which we will call as the third stage; There is a decrease in the negative reactions given after the disaster. The individual who has experienced the disaster now shows signs of recovery and begins to be interested in life and to make plans for the future. The survivor is now starting to recover emotionally and physically.
The first hours experienced after the earthquake are the hours with a high concentration of drama that carry panic and grief. People are in great rush. In the next few weeks, the psychology of the earthquake victims suggests the problem of how their life will be next. The panic and desperation of the first days are replaced by the search for how to start life again. Thoughts such as the desire to live at home again and return to work begin to appear. It is seen that state and local governments have started damage repair and reinstatement works.
According to psychology research, disasters have significant effects on alcohol-related problems, depression, violence, generalized anxiety disorders and PTSD. PTSD is revealed to be a psychological disorder that is widely studied among disaster survivors. Disaster-related stress responses are classified as physiological and psycho-emotional responses, and there are researchers who suggest that these stress responses occur in open and observable behaviors. In studies conducted in this direction, the findings reveal that the possibility of physical or psychosomatic illness, alcohol-related problems, family stress, violence and aggression increases as a result of disasters.
Psychological support in disasters; Preventing psychological disorders that may arise after a disaster, re-establishing and developing relationships at family and community level, ensuring that the affected people realize their own capacities and strengthen their endurance in the process of returning to their normal lives, increasing the skills of coping with possible disasters and emergencies in the future, supporting relief efforts It is expressed as a set of multidisciplinary services that includes and is carried out at every stage of the disaster cycle. Psychological support activities play a major role in the basis of coping with negative situations after disasters. Psychological support is the most important phase of the recovery phase of disaster management. Psychological support helps the society to return to its former psychosocial state by relieving and directing the disaster victims and teaching methods to cope with the negative situations that occur.
Earthquake disaster affects all people psychologically. People use their own means to get rid of this negativity. The low number of people receiving professional support stems from the prejudices of the Turkish people about getting psychological support. In order to prevent this prejudice, the psychologist who will provide professional support should have personal approaches and behave.
The biggest lesson to be learned in earthquakes with high loss of life and property, especially the last Izmir earthquake; It is the fact that the earthquake does not kill people directly, the situation that causes destruction and loss of life is caused by unstable or illegal structures. If you are experiencing natural disasters, deaths, accidents, earthquakes, tsunamis, etc. and traumatic situations, you can reach expert psychologists, pedagogues, psychotherapists on whatsapp 05447243650. Always keep in mind; No matter what we live, we will definitely see good days as it cannot always go bad. Goodbye, stay friendly, be at peace with yourself and your loved ones.
Prof. Dr. Ekrem Çulfa
SOURCES YOU CAN USE:
Adams, P. R., & Adams, G. R. (1984). Mount Saint Helen’s Ashfall: Evidence for
a disaster stress reaction. American Psychologist, 39, 252-260
Bayhan N., Gül H., 2001. Deprem El Kitabı. Zaman Cep Kitapları, İstanbul. 125 s.
Aydın, D. (2014). Afet Sonrası Psikososyal Destek Uygulamaları.12 Mayıs 2014, http://www.ihhakademi.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/AFETSONRASI-DESTEK.pdf.
Canbolat B., Erberik A., Tüydeş H., Karaesmen E., 2006. Deprem. ODTÜ Yayıncılık, Ankara. 152 s.
Karancı, N., 2008. Afet Zararlarını Azaltmada Psikolojinin Önemi, Afet zararlarını azaltmanın temel ilkeleri, JICA türkiye ofisi, yayın no: 2, s51-59, Ankara.
Şahin C., Sipahioğlu Ş., 2003. Doğal Afetler Ve Türkiye. (2. Baskı). Gündüz Eğitim ve Yayıncılık, Ankara. 472 s.
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