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NEW AGE THERAPIES/EXPRESSIVE THERAPIES
13/11/2020

Psychotherapy involves a therapist using a range of techniques to help a patient overcome troubles, gain insight, and achieve personal growth, understand what helps then feel positive or anxious. There are many types of psychotherapy. This paper would be an introduction and explain to new age therapies/expressive therapies and attempting to cover the following initially we will look at some of the therapies. Many New Age therapies, however, are little more than a mixture of metaphysics, religion, and pseudoscientific "insights." The new age therapies are defined as the use of art, music, dance/movement, drama, poetry/creative writing, play and sand tray within the context of psychotherapy, counseling, rehabilitation or health care.

Art therapy is a mental health profession that uses the imaginative process to improve the well-being of individuals of all ages. It is based on the belief that art-making helps people resolve conflicts, manage behavior, reduce stress, accession self-esteem and self-awareness and integrate towards wholeness. By combining theories and techniques from innovative psychotherapy with knowledge and information about the psychological aspects of the creative process, art therapy allows individual awareness of personal insight.

One Pioneer who helped to contribute to the field of Gestalt Art Therapy is Janie Rhyne. She has a Ph.D. in Art Therapy. She studied line drawings of felling-states based on George Kelly’s “personal construct” theory, which is described as image creations from “visual languaging”. Moreover, she is the author of “The Gestalt Art Experience”. Janie Rhyne’s theoretical orientation is Gestalt therapy. This theory focuses upon the client’s experience in the moment. Gestalt therapy is unique because it moves towards action, as opposed to regular talk therapy. Through the use of experiments, the therapist is strengthening the client’s ability to participate in something new, in place of discussing the possibility of something new. Through understanding  the inner experience, the client is also able to resolve unfinished business, an emphasis in this theory. With the use of experiential art, Rhyne is able to allow the client to receive awareness about themselves. By utilizing a Gestalt-based experiential, the client is able to resolve any unfinished business.

According to Pioneer Janie Rhyne, humans have an ingrained craving to create. Art therapy does not only provide a client with a healing process, it also satisfies this hunger. The advantage of Gestalt Art Therapy is that it allows the individual to realize that their identity comprises of many parts and that each part can be separated, but together makes the whole of the internal psyche. This type of therapy also allows the client to work out any unfinished business both internally and externally. Lastly, Rhyne found that this form of therapy worked great with groups. When individuals need closure and completeness, the group experience can help by providing support and making the experience universal.

A real-world example utilizing art therapy, specifically Gestalt Art Therapy, can be found in the journal article titled “Group art therapy with sexually abused girls”. This article analyzed various group art therapy experiential that were designed to help reduce depression, anxiety, sexual trauma and low self-esteem in sexually abused girls. One experiential used in the study involved resolving unfinished business regarding feelings towards their abuser. The girls were asked to draw two boxes, a happy box, and unhappy box. The girls were then asked to use an animal, shape or color to represent their perpetrator. They were then given the opportunity to verbally or physically Express their feelings about their abuser, recording these feelings in either box that applied.

The author of this article found that art therapy has the ability to open up an individual, especially young girls. It gives meaning to feelings and experiences that are difficult to comprehend and verbalize. Used in the group setting, it gives the individual  the feeling that they are not alone in their experiences. Lastly, with the utilization of the Gestalt approach, it gave the girls the ability to experience the here and now when reflecting on the perpetration. This showed the girls that their feeling about the situation can differ. The results of the article showed that the program created, and the interventions used, did lower symptoms of depression and anxiety within the girls. In the field of art therapy, this study is useful because it gives more literature on sexual abuse, sexual abuse intervention, and the incorporation of art therapy when assisting with clients who have experienced sexual abuse. The specific interventions used in the study were also found to be effective, and therefore, could be utilized in the treatment process of girls who have experienced sexually abused.

From both the article and Pioneer Janie Rhyne, we have learned that art therapy is the use of art experiential in order to create awareness about one’s self and their personal experience.

Whether the individual is focusing on the past or experiencing the here-and-now, art therapy allows them to resolve issues that are conflicting to the individual, and which are not so easily dealt with using words.

Music Therapy is the ability to listen, to sing, or perform music as means to advance relaxation and homeostasis.(Seward) Music therapy is a systematic application of music by the therapist to bring about helpful changes int the emotional or physical health of client and seeks to achieve relaxation to listening music. Music therapy has many physiological effects such as heals the body, enhances brain function, improvements to physical performance, work more productively and mood enhancer. The music builds the brain by improving memory performance, recalling is one example. For instance, If we think about our favorite song, we tend to listen to over and over and eventually we know every word. This is recalling. It also helps with concentration and attention to an idea. Music Therapy helps enhance higher brain functioning such as reading and education aptitudes, spatial-temporal reasoning, mathematical abilities and emotional intelligence. Moreover, music improves physical performance. It is helping us move better and improving motor coordination. It helps aid relaxation and reduce stress. This occurs by physical relaxation on tense muscles, aids in stress relief activities like yoga or reduces negative emotions by reducing an amount of cortisol, a stress-related hormone produced in response to stress. Music Therapy helps the better mood.

The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (July 2002) was searched music therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. All randomized controlled trials that compared music therapy with standard care or other psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia. Studies were reliably chosen, quality assessed and data extracted. Six randomized controlled trials from 1994 to 2004 were incorporated that compared music therapy with standard care or other psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia. The conclusion is music therapy as an addition to standard care helps people with schizophrenia if an adequate number of music therapy sessions are provided. The results of these studies suggest that music therapy enhances worldwide state and may also enhance mental state and functioning if an adequate number of music therapy sessions are provided. Significantly improved areas were a worldwide state, general and negative symptoms and functioning.(Gold and Heldal et al, 2005)

Dance/Movement Therapy is a form of psychotherapy, uses creative and functioning movement to work on feelings. The founder is Deborah James.

This therapy would be very useful for children who suffers from autism. According to ADTA(2009), is accepted on the conviction that “mind, body, and spirit are interconnected” and that effective healing can happen with the conscious use of movement to further the individual’s emotional, physical, cognitive, and social integration (ADTA 2009). The American Dance Therapy Association (ADTA) is the expert association for this type of therapy and defines dance/movement therapy as effective for individuals with developmental, medical, social, physical and psychological impairments. It practiced in mental health, rehabilitation, medical, educational and forensic settings and in nursing homes, day care centers, disease prevention, health promotion programs and in private practiceThe Professional qualification for dance/movement therapy is the BC-DMT (Board Certified Dance/Movement Therapist). Dance/Movement Therapy is useful for children who suffer from obesity. The evidence of DMT efficacy for addressing some of the problems associated with childhood obesity such as depression, body image and bullying and violence in schools.

Drama Therapy one of choosing the creative benefit of drama such as story, play, art, music, movement, in order to explain feelings in different ways. The unique opportunity to discover a place where we can explore ourselves freely without judgment and learn more about who you are. The establishments of drama therapy incorporate theater but also psychology, anthropology, psychotherapy, and play/creative processes (NADTA, Drama Therapy n.d.) The North American Drama Therapy Association (NADTA) was created in 1979 to establish and uphold the expert standards for the discipline.

Biblio/Poetry Therapy is a way of verbalizing soul, promoting individual growth and healing and it is very useful. For instance, imagine being in a whole new world and where we fell like. Our soul has been trapped in someone else’s body and we try to identify who we are by looking at our reflections. However, our memory is still a blur, we call for help but no one is around to hear our call and every time we speak, no one understanding our language because everything is happening in our head. We think what do we do. In the UK, 1 in 4 people suffers from a mental illness. We asked why not express ourselves through writing a poem. Then, if we are start writing a poem, it could be relaxing yourself. Moreover, it is a therapy that claims its roots in ancient history in the chanting practices used by shamans in many cultures to guarantee or promote the health and well-being of individuals or tribes. Molly Middleton Meyer is a founder of “Mind’s Eye Poetry” for Alzheimer’s disease and she witnessed courageous men and women who live in the moment, who live in imagination, who live in memory.

Hypnotherapy uses hypnosis and helps in different everyday challenges such as social anxiety, weight loss, panic, migraine, phobias, and fears. It can also help you relieve stress, get rid of addiction or face and overcome your fears. In one study, %81 of smokers gave up cigarettes after hypnotherapy. Hypnotherapy is proven to effective in pain management, anxiety relief, and improved capacity to learn. It can use hypnosis. We are in a trance like state where your body is deeply relaxed but your mind is active. Many cancer patients used hypnotherapy because it is helping them relax and cope better with symptoms and treatment. Some doctors and dentists have training in hypnotherapy. Hypnosis is completely safe and feels wonderful. People of average intelligence can be hypnotized in most cases if they are willing and do not resist.

Women who is 39 years old and suffer from colon cancer 3b with side effects of severe weight loss and giving up due to fear of death and too late for surgery. She started chemotherapy and radiology 4 weeks ago. With the help of hypnosis in 20-25 minutes and when she came over the trance she feels refreshed and comfortable and pain is almost gone. In addition, people who suffer from medical conditions, should not be hypnotized such as schizophrenia and personality disorders.

Finding a qualified hypnotherapist, make sure hypnotherapist with lots of experience, well-qualified and recognize the hypnotherapist such as talking or ask questions.   In the UK The British Society of Clinical Hypnosis

In my opinion, one of the remarkable aspects human beings our ability to thoughts, ideas and feelings into words. These words affect people near and far. This gift of language in ables us to for relation, exchange information or inspire someone to act. We also have the ability to communicate without sounds, such as looking our eyes, the way we move our hands. Some of us comfortable using words to tell out the story. Others so receptive to writing, music or dance to say who we are. Expressive therapies give us do an opportunity to use movement therapy, music, painting, dance, and art to find our voice. Experts in this areas will instruct to by way of demonstration videos to how to use each modality to relieve stress, achieve balance, improve self-awareness and cope with experiences that are difficult to verbalize. These techniques can move us beyond road blocks pretend us from living life as dream up doing. Learning how to move your body, to gain new insight and to express yourself.                                                          

                                                REFERENCES

American Art Therapy Association. (2013) What is art therapy?. website: http://www.arttherapy.org

Art Therapy Credentials Board. (2015) What is art therapy?. website: http://www.atcb.org

Ceus, J. (2007). Art therapy course. website: http://www.myceusonline.com/art_therapy_course.html

Irving, M., & Irving. C. (2003). Art therapy: an overview. Retrieved from website: http://www.irginstudios.com/natalism/art_therapy_overview.html

Pretorius, G, & Natascha, p. (2010). Group art therapy with sexually abused girls. South African Journal of Psychology, 40(1), 63-73

Wallace, K. (2009). Line drawing. Retrieved from website: http://arttherapyreflections.blogspot.com/2009/03/art-therapy-exercises-scribble-drawings.html

Uzman Klinik Psikolog Hatice Büşra KARA

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