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ADAPTATION AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN
13/11/2021
ADAPTATION AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

From the moment a child opens his eyes to the world, his family is his closest environment. The family is the most important factor in the development of the child. 65% of a child's personality development takes place in the 0-6 age range. In this process, the more positive the attention, love and education given to the child, the more positive the child's development is affected, but if the child does not receive enough attention and love in the family, the child's development is affected negatively. If there are more problematic behaviors in the family, the school life of these children is negatively affected, however, adaptation and behavior problems are more common. For this reason, families should be good role models for their children, and the child's positive behaviors should be supported in cooperation with their teachers throughout the child's education life.

The teachers most frequently encountered behavioral problems such as being irritable, attachment to the mother, crying, not sharing, being introverted, nail biting, bedwetting and loss of appetite; In the process of struggling with adjustment and behavioral disorders, it is seen that they follow the methods of talking with the student, cooperation with the family, rewarding positive behavior, seeking expert opinion, being patient, smiling and compassionate, and that families do not use violence against children, be a perfectionist, do not make positive conversations towards school, do not show much interest. They state that behaviors such as being overprotective, low economic status, inconsistent parental attitudes and insecure attachment in the 0-2 age period are effective in the emergence of adaptation and behavioral problems in children. Teachers also stated that being in cooperation with the teacher, acceptance of the family and the behaviors of being consistent have a positive effect in the process of coping with the adaptation and behavioral problems of the children; It is stated that the family's not accepting the child's situation and not being conscious have a negative effect.

The childhood period is important in terms of being the period when individuals acquire their first experiences, which is effective on their multi-faceted development, as well as forming the foundations of their future lives. Childhood, which cannot be described as a period of preparation for adulthood, is an important developmental period in itself. In this context, education can be described not only as preparation activities for the future life, but also as activities carried out for the present time. It is important for individuals to learn right and wrong by experiencing them in the life process. The inability of individuals to experience the experiences they need to go through during their developmental period may cause these experiences to emerge in later developmental periods. The feelings of hope, joy, justice, peace and kindness that adults should have are also characteristics that should be found in children. Experiences that occur during the developmental stages of individuals reveal violence, and unsatisfied experiences reveal the feeling of guilt. In this context, it can be said that it is important for the individual to spend his/her life in the pre-school period in appropriate conditions and in a good way, as it is in all developmental periods of the individuals, in order for the individual to have a positive life in the future. The quality and types of the lives of children in the pre-school period constitute one of the basic elements that play a vital role on the multifaceted personality development.

The family and home environment, which constitute the first social environment of the individual, are of great importance in terms of influencing the first experiences of individuals and their multifaceted personality development. The first stages of the learning process, which starts from birth, take place in the family. The experiences of the individual in the first years of his life form the basis of the behavior of the individual in the later period.

The family is the most important institution that plays a role in the acquisition of social skills of the child in early childhood. The family is the environment where the child gets his first social experiences, and the child's experiences here are of great importance in shaping his behavior. The interaction of parents with their children is important for the personality development of the child. The interactions of the parents with their children in the preschool period and their behaviors towards their children directly affect the personal development of the child, and the relations of the parents with their children in this period, their emotional closeness levels, their understanding of discipline and the cognitive stimulation opportunities offered by the children have a positive effect on the child's personality development.

Communications of individuals with family members, interactions of family members with each other, parental attitudes, behaviors of parents, socio-cultural and socio-economic conditions of the family are the main factors that affect the development of the child's inherited characteristics. Parents' child It is stated that it is important for them to have knowledge about their developmental characteristics. It is very important to carry out informative activities so that parents can learn to communicate effectively with their children, in terms of exhibiting harmonious behaviors towards their children.

One of the important issues affecting children's social cohesion is the child's interactions with family members. Parents are the child's first role models. Children who show rapid cognitive, emotional and physical development can be directly affected by the changes in their parents' behavior. A mother who can communicate effectively with her child can contribute positively to the emotional and cognitive development of the child. By creating positive environments for their children, parents can enable them to have a healthy emotional and social development process.

Mothers are the first individuals with whom children establish social relations. Mother-child interaction is one of the basic elements that are effective in the development of the child's relationship with their parents. Children who have strong interactions with their mothers can establish healthy relationships with other people in their social environment in the later stages of their lives. In almost all cultures around the world, the family is one of the first and most important institutions where the child acquires social skills. Public health, which is directly affected by physical ailments and some other problems, can have a direct impact on children as well as adults. Psychological problems, which are one of the important problems that cause negative effects on public health, have recently increased the rate of negative behaviors such as hyperactivity, depression, aggressive behaviors, anxiety and stubbornness in children.

Inability of parents and children to communicate adequately with each other can cause behavioral and adaptation problems in children. Conflicts between parents, divorce of parents, absence of a father, indifference, being away from the family, stressful family environment, leaving the home of the mother or father or both, poverty and negative parental attitudes in children, nail biting, bedwetting, loss of appetite, It can cause behavioral disorders such as reluctance to go, lying, stealing and stubbornness. Psychiatric problems in parents, indifferent and unloving attitudes towards the child negatively affect the cognitive and emotional development of children and may cause problems such as physical disorders, anxiety, depression, aggression, fear, hostility, hyperactivity and attention deficit.

Protective, perfectionist, democratic, insensitive, authoritarian, domineering, rejecting, negligent and punishing behaviors of parents towards their children are defined as parental attitudes. While the children of parents who exhibit positive parental attitudes develop personality traits such as being friendly, helpful, self-confident, resourceful, sensitive to individuals and events in their social environment, gaining a sense of competence and having a high level of social responsibility; On the other hand, children of parents with negative parenting attitudes can develop personality traits such as low self-esteem, dependency, shyness, and behavioral and adaptation problems.

Different personality traits and behaviors can be observed in children who grow up in families with different parental attitudes. These negative personality traits of individuals who do not have self-control, have low self-confidence and are dependent are commonly caused by negative parental attitudes. Considering that the social environment, especially the family, has an impact on the behavior of the individual, it is necessary to examine the social environment and family as well as the child's in order to make sense of the maladjustment and behavioral disorders exhibited by preschool children and to determine the source of these behaviors correctly. In addition to the behaviors they exhibit during their developmental period, children can also exhibit some behaviors that are described as problematic. Failure to recognize adjustment disorders and problematic behaviors in the early period and not taking the necessary measures to solve this problem can cause individuals to turn into permanent behaviors. In this context, monitoring children's behaviors and identifying their problematic behaviors and seeking solutions is one of the important measures that can be taken to prevent these behaviors from turning into permanent ones.

Early childhood period is the developmental period in which a significant part of personality development is completed, and adaptation and behavior problems that occur due to some reasons in this period may cause the individual to experience various problems in social relations in the future. attached. In this context, it is important to determine the behavioral problems that occur in the early period and to determine the source of these problems and to seek solutions for these behaviors in order to prevent these behaviors from becoming permanent in individuals. For this reason, determining parental attitudes that are effective in the emergence of adjustment and behavioral disorders in children is of great importance in preventing the emergence of these behaviors and preventing them from turning into permanent behaviors. In this context, it is of great importance to determine the role of the family in eliminating the adjustment and behavioral disorders of preschool children.

More information or to get an appointment to the Child and Adolescent Psychologist pedagogue Call us +90,544,724 36 50

REFERENCES

Akçınar, B., Baydar, N. (2018). The relationship between maternal behavior and externalizing behavior problems in early childhood. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 66, 454-470.

Kandır, A., Alpan, Y. (2008). The effect of parental behaviors on social-emotional development in preschool period. Journal of Social Policy Studies, 14(14), 33-38.

Kargi, E., Erkan, S. (2004). Investigation of problem behaviors of preschool children (Ankara Province Example). Hacettepe University Faculty of Education Journal, 27, 135-144.

Poyraz, H. (2003). Principles and methods of pre-school education. Ankara: Memoir Publishing.

Seki, T. (2014). Investigation of social appearance anxiety and subjective well-being of adolescents in terms of their values. (Master's Thesis). Necmettin Erbakan University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Konya.

Tezel-Sahin, F. (2003). The role of the father in the development and education of the child. M. Sevinç (Ed.), Development and New Approaches in Education. (p.459-463). Istanbul: Morpa Publications.

Unsal, F.O. (2010). Investigation of the relationship between social emotional adaptation and behavioral problems of 60-72 month old children attending pre-school education institution. (Master's Thesis). Marmara University Institute of Educational Sciences, Istanbul.


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